was born on 31 Jan 1898. He served in the Royal Flying Corps during the First World War, before attending Cambridge University. He left university for a while to enter into analysis with Ernest Jones. After returning to complete his BA at Cambridge, he moved to Vienna to undertake analysis with Sigmund Freud and complete a PhD. On returning to England, he took another PhD at University College London under the supervision of J C Flugel. After this was completed, he was elected as an Associate Member of the British Psychoanalytical Society, although he did not begin a training analysis until the late 1930s. This analysis, with Melanie Klein, continued while he served in the Air Ministry during the Second World War. After the war, he spent six months in Germany with the Control Commission. He was recommended for membership of the British Psychoanalytical Society in 1945 and entered into psychoanalytic practice.